Unlike a mathematical Prof, a scientific theory is empirical and is always open to falsification , if new evidence is presented . That is , no theory is ever considered strictly certain as science works under a scientific view . Instead , science is proud to make predictions with great probability,bearing in mind that the most likely event is not always what actually happens. During the Yom Kippur war, cognitive psychologist Daniel Kahneman was asked to explain why one squad of aircraft had returned safely , yet a second squad on exactly the same operation had lost all of its planes . Rather than conduct a study in the hope of a new hypothesis , Kahneman simply reiterated the importance of expecting some coincidence in life , explaining that absurdly rare things , by definition, occasionally happen. Although science value legitimate doubt, the flat earth society is still widely regarded as an example of taking skepticism too far , theories very rarely results in vast changes in our understanding . According to psychologist Keith Stanovich ,it may be the medias over use of words like "breakthrough" that the leads the public to imagine that science is constantly improving everything . Its thought was true to be false . While there are such famous cases as a theory of relativity that required a complete re-conceptualization , these are extreme exceptions, knowledge in science is gained by a gradual synthesis of information from different experiments, by various researchers , across different domains of science , it is more like a climb,than a leap. Theories vary in the extent to which they have been tested and verified as well as their acceptance in the scientific community. For example , heliocentric theory still bear the name "theory" even though , in practice , they are considered factual . Philosopher Barry Stroud adds that , although the best definition for "knowledge" is contested being skeptical and entertaining the possibility that one is incorrect is compatible with being correct . Ironically then , the scientific adhering to proper scientific method will doubt themselves even once they possess the truth .The fallibilist C.S Peirce argued that inquiry is the struggle to resolve actual doubt and that merely quarrelsome , verbal, or hyperbolic doubt is fruitless but also that the inquirer should try to attain genuine doubt rather than resting on critically uncommon sense . He held that the successful sciences trust ,not to any single chain of inference (no stronger than its weakest ) , but to the cable of multiple and various arguments intimidately connected.